Demonstration ROS Coordinate Frames

I spent a bit of time recently help a friend set up a robotics lab. One of the things I wanted to nail down was a consistent set of coordinate frames for all the equipment.

The Robot Operating System is awesome, and provided you set up your TF models correctly, it’ll do all the work for you. However it’s sometimes counterintuitive how it should be set up. ROS has a standard way of arranging coordinates (REP0103), but it’s different for ordinary coordinate frames and camera frames. (For very good historical reasons; the camera frame has Z pointing forwards, which means X is lined up with image columns, and Y is image rows).

I decided to make some tangible models for people to use when they’re discussing transformations. When troubleshooting robots you constantly find yourself in front of a whiteboard making “finger axes”, I wanted something we could use instead, and that had the same colouring and labels as the software.

The idea is first, to have something tangible to play with while brainstorming, and second, as a reminder of the convention, to allow errors to be detected. If there’s an error, I really want someone to ask “Wait, why is the green arrow pointing in a different direction on screen?”.

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Making the ‘Ultimate’ Pochade Boxes

The previous  writeup was getting a bit long, so I thought I’d put the steps used for making the boxes in their own post.

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I started with the frame, using pine and biscuit joints for securing it:

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The ‘Ultimate’ Pochade Box

I’ve been getting interested in plein air oil painting recently, not so coincidentally after Netflix brought out some inspiration.

As with any set of tools, painting equipment only has value if you actually use it, and lots of hobbies get dropped, not because people don’t enjoy them, but because it’s slightly too hard to use regularly. Adam Savage has a great saying, that “drawers are where tools go to die”, i.e. if it’s out of sight, we forget it’s there, and we’re not motivated to look for it.

Hence, I wanted to make sure I had a way to make it easy to get painting. To make getting going on any given day require the absolute bare minimum of ‘spritual energy’, gumption, spoons or other resources that might be running low.

Enter the pochade box! Pochades (from the French for pocket) are an all-in-one way of carrying around supplies and a way of working on paintings in the field.

My wishlist of features was something like this:

  • Must allow stopping and starting just by opening & closing the box
    • No pack up time, fussing to turn canvases around, add clips, put them in separate boxes for transport.
  • Must allow carrying of essentials & tools:
    • Paints, brushes, small amount of solvent & mediums, pencils, etc
    • The two exceptions to this are a roll of paper towels, and the (leakproof) brush washer tin, which I’m happy to carry in my backpack.
  • Tools should be exposed for easy use during painting.
    • This was my major peeve with the French easel design, by hiding stuff behind the canvas, I’m likely to forget it’s there, or be too lazy to use it when I should.
  • Wet canvas carrier
    • Utterly essential. Nothing’s going to add stress to the end of the day like manouvering a wet canvas around safely.
  • Multiple sizes of canvas able to be carried
    • Many pochade boxes are single size only, and lots of artists end up owning three or four different sized boxes, no joke. Of course having a separate small box is much lighter for quick trips, but still flexibility is handy.
  • Should sit flat on a desk, and not take up too much room if I’m sharing a desk with others
    • This one is more a response to some French easel style pochade boxes I saw. They claim to fold up the tripod legs and allow you to use it on a desk in a class environment. It might be just me, but if I’m indoors with a group, I’d feel extremely self conscious having a huge folded tripod on the desk.
  • Weight goal: Hmm… ‘Luggable‘.
    • Lightweight would be good, but I’m aiming for something I can carry a few hundred meters from a car, rather than something you can climb a mountain with.
  • Glass palette as mixing surface
    • Easy cleanup, also allows putting reference material underneath
    • Should be removable, as it allows storing unused paint in the freezer

I took my time playing around with ideas for this one. After more than a week of sketching and researching other people’s designs, I had some idea of what I wanted to do.

This is the final result. (Why are there two? At some point through construction, I realised I’d put enough safety margin in my wood purchase to make a whole other box, and I couldn’t resist having a matched set).

 

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Here’s what I came up with for wet canvas storage, it’s adjustable to any size canvas, and you can have a pair of different sized wet canvases in place without them touching:

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I was inspired by this pochade from Ruth Vines, but modified it so the rods don’t extend out of the box.

The boards are held in place by plastic extrusion used for sliding cupboard doors. The wooden pieces have ‘U’ cutouts and can be completely removed by loosening the nuts and just sliding the frame out. The lower frame has a cutout allowing taller canvasses to pass through:

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Both of the box sides have a pullout work surface, something to rest brushes, solvent containers and other miscellaneous bits on:

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I might add in some cutouts to act as brush or tool holders

The glass palette surface was just a $5 A4 photo frame screwed to the surface. This has the added bonus that I can put a printed sheet underneath to help me get consistent palette ordering, and a value scale to compare against while painting:

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For some reason the hackerspace printer was making the greyscales at the bottom green?  Meh, I’ll fix it later

And of course the palette can be removed & stored in the freezer (to keep the paints wet as long as possible)

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The final thing to do was add something to differentiate the two boxes, so I can grab the right one in a hurry. Using the obligatory naming convention I made a couple of lasercut labels:

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And on the box:

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Albrecht and Balthasar ready for action

Sometime I’ll probably put a polyurethane coating on for protection, but they’re pretty sturdy.

I’ve had a chance to carry them around a bit now, and while they’re not light, they’re acceptably ‘luggable’, and I can carry one a kilometer or two without major injuries. They’ve also proved more than sturdy enough to use as a seat while waiting for a train!

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What we can’t measure, we can’t improve

Quick and dirty post showing something I made this morning to aid in troubleshooting the filtration system at Robots and Dinosaurs.

Members from RnD have been building and rebuilding our own lasercutters for years. Mostly building our own because we got started before readymade commercial lasercutters of a decent size were affordable to the hobbyist, and if you wanted a machine you needed to spend six months whittling your own from lumps of aluminium. (Nowadays most cheap Ebay lasers are probably the place to start)  But filtering the fumes has always been a bit of a dark art.

We’ve both made filters from scratch, and bought various commercial filters. Every filter is  some combination of a coarse pre-filter, bag filter/wool filter, then putting the output through an activated carbon bed.

Getting a filter that works isn’t the hard bit. It’s getting one that won’t clog up after a week’s use that’s tricky.

Recently we changed lasercutters, and getting the filter going again nicely has been tricky. There’s been discussion about putting fans before or after the inlet, the arrangement of the bags, and which bits are sealing well.

Anyhoo. It occurred to me that a lot of the problem has been that it’s tricky for us to figure out when something’s changed, if the filter’s full, or if a given modification makes the situation better or worse.

After a quick trip to the hardware store, and also getting some pneumatic fittings from my toolkit, here’s what we’ve got:

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The U-shaped tube contains water and food dye, and was filled with equal amounts of sucking, blowing and cursing.

I drilled in the case of the lasercutter, on a point which connects to the exhaust plenum, and made sure it seals tightly. Note the use of the air fittings allows us to disconnect the gauge from one point and measure from another, so we can narrow down pieces of equipment during troubleshooting. thumb_IMG_2444_1024.jpg

During use the gauge doesn’t change by much. This is showing the delta pressure between the lasercutter body and after the first pump:

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I’ll add an adjustable scale to it shortly, but it’s not a bad indicator for now. We’ll probably play around with measuring the pressure between various locations while we’re troubleshooting.

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Swear detecting eyebrows with FFT, Teensy & Electroboom

Here’s a quick project I had the idea for after reading that the “swear bleep” sound is actually fairly standardized at 1,000Hz.

Using a Teensy & audio shield, I soldered on a microphone scavenged from the junk drawer. IMG_2185.JPG

With a half an hour’s tinkering, I had the teensy’s FFT monitoring a few frequency bins around 1,000Hz, and firing the output.

If you’re looking for a bleeped out electronics video, there’s really only one choice of channel.

And what better way to show the indicated signal than Mehdi’s most famous feature:

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Here’s a vid of it in action:

I wasn’t expecting this bit, but in hindsight there’s no reason why it shouldn’t. When I was replaying the above video, the detector happily triggered again on the 2nd generation audio:

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Browception

The Teensy is really a nice platform to make this happen, cheap and very arduino compatible, and there’s a ton of work gone into those audio & FFT libraries. It was a joy to play with.

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Full Circle Bell Simulator

I’ve recently gotten into Change Ringing, and helped a friend build a bell simulator from a broken bell that was laying around.

“Full Circle” bell ringing is a bit counter intuitive. Rather than having the mouth of the bell face down as you’d expect, the bells are over-balanced resting on a stop, so the slightest pull causes them to ring through 360* of travel.

Also, since the mass of the bell can be much more than the bellringer, they can’t start or stop the bell instantly, but instead can excerpt just enough force to comfortably shift maybe one position behind or one position ahead in the sequence.

The nifty consequence of this very mechanical limit, is that change ringing then becomes an exploration of the permutations possible with the sequence of bells. There’s a whole bunch of tasty mathematics in there, touching on graph theory, permutations, polyhedra, Hamiltonians, and much more.

Back to the hardware. Here’s what I came up with, it’s pretty cheap, and should be compatible with all major Campanology simulators like Abel & Virtual Belfry:

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Note the ‘slider’ bar at the bottom can slide to allow the bell to rest stationary regardless of which side it was raised from

The main frame is made from the bulk aluminium extrusion I bought previously, and the bell is supported on some cheap 608 skate bearings held in lasercut wooden holders.

 

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The wooden dowel used for the “stay” has been sized so that if the bell is rung up too vigorously, it breaks there, rather than anywhere else. (This much more import with the big bells, often weighing tons, as it means a $5 piece of wood is damaged, rather than the bearings, frame or bell itself).

The electrical parts needed are quite cheap, and cost only about $30:

Wiring is absurdly straight forward. 5V to 5V, GND to GND, and the signal from the sensor goes to the CTS signal on the serial.

All the electronics are mounted on the side. I used a cheap plastic box we had laying around the space. thumb_IMG_2159_1024.jpg

Once that’s done, a small magnet is hot-glued to the wheel so that it triggers the sensor at the resting (bell down) position.

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The light on the hall effect sensor is very handy for tuning

 

Back to the computer. In Virtual Belfry, the bell is selected to use the COM port, and the CTS signal. It’s then just a matter of tuning the delay between the sensor firing and the bell striking.

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Now the bell all set to practice ringing changes:

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More portable than most steeples

 

 

 

 

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Buckminster Fuller’s Map – A Lasercut Dymaxion Globe

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This is the true reason for my previous project on Platonic Solids. I was playing around with map projections, and became a tag smitten with Buckminster FulIer’s Dymaxion Projection.

It’s able to do a map projection with surprisingly little distortion:

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Image from Wikipedia here

I laser cut the ‘gore’s onto wood tiles:

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Living in the 21st Century is very convenient. I was able to download the SVG from Wikipedia, and it took about hour’s work to get something suitable for lasercutting. Not perfect, but way better than tracing manually. 

The vertices are sized to allow an M3 screw to hold without needing any nuts, or pointy self-tapping screws.

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I quite liked the aesthetic of the cap heads, compared to the countersunk or dome heads used in the last post. 

Files are here for anyone that wants to make their own:

http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1871829

(Note: this is decended from this image here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dymaxion_map#/media/File:Fuller_projection_rotated.svg
Made by Eric Gaba – Wikimedia Commons user: Sting)

I’m not sold on the Dymaxion being the default map projection for humanity, but it has some interesting properties, and it was certainly a fun build.

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